Hidden danger investigation and accident preventio

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Hidden danger investigation and accident prevention of work at heights

work at heights is also known as "work at heights", which refers to operations that are likely to fall at a certain height. The national standard gb3608-93 also has a higher strength and toughness rate than commonly used materials. The "classification of work at heights" clearly stipulates: "operations that are carried out at heights that are more than 2m (including 2m) above the falling height reference plane and are likely to fall are called work at heights."

with the development of the shipbuilding industry, only a cargo ship of tens of thousands of tons is equivalent to a building with more than ten floors. In the process of ship construction, the operation point is a certain height from the ground. For various forms of opening and edge operations, suspended operations, operating platforms and three-dimensional cross operations within the scope of deck and cabin structures, as well as assembly, welding, turning over and hoisting operations in the segmented manufacturing site, As long as the above conditions are met, they are treated as high-altitude operations and protected

high altitude operation is prone to fall accidents. From the analysis of possible locations, it is widely distributed, including dock, wharf, engine room, deck and other production areas, as well as non production areas such as lifting machinery equipment, roof, channel, platform and so on. From the analysis of the injured part, it is easy to cause brain injury or visceral injury and death due to the head landing or impact after falling; The impact on limbs, trunk, lumbar spine and other parts often causes serious injury or even lifelong disability

the causes of falling accidents from height include: workers violate operating procedures or labor disciplines; Lack or defect of personal protective equipment; Lack or defect of protection, insurance, signal and other devices; Lack of training and education, do not know the operation technology and knowledge; Equipment, facilities, tools and accessories are defective; Unreasonable labor organization and taboo personnel to work at heights; Lack of inspectors on site or wrong guidance; Failure of safety devices and protection; Venture into dangerous places; Defective design and unreasonable scaffold erection; The light is insufficient or the working place and passage still need to be studied in depth at present; Risky operation in strong wind or bad weather

at the same time, people may be injured by falling objects or projectiles, resulting in object strike accidents, due to the littering of excess materials, falling hands, the failure to remove movable scaffolding, and the failure to wear safety protective equipment. In terms of the injured parts, most of the dead parts caused by object strike are in the head, followed by the chest, while the injured parts caused by serious injury accidents are mostly in the legs, followed by the eyes. From the perspective of the weight accelerometers used for axial stressing of the injured people, they are mainly front-line production workers such as assemblers and welders. This is because the main front-line production work in the shipyard has a poor working environment and a wide range of activities. On the sections that have not been separated from the tire, in the hangers at the closure, and on the guide frame of the cargo hold, the operation is mostly three-dimensional cross operation of two or more people. Improper cooperation often leads to tragedy and personal injury

the analysis results of serious injury and death accidents caused by object strike injury show that the main reasons are generally violations of operating procedures or labor disciplines, lack of on-site inspection and design defects

high altitude operation accidents include High-altitude Falling and object strike, of which High-altitude Falling accounts for about 60% of high-altitude operation accidents, and the accident consequences are relatively serious

II. Identification of hidden dangers of work at heights

Heinrich accident law reveals the relationship between accidents and hidden dangers: ten million hidden dangers correspond to 330 accidents, which include 300 no injury, no loss or risk events, 29 minor injury or low loss accidents and 1 death, serious injury or major loss accident. Therefore, hidden danger investigation is the basic work to prevent accidents and reduce accidents, and it is also the premise of safety management. Only by effectively investigating hidden dangers, can we formulate targeted measures to prevent accidents

there are many hidden dangers leading to falling from height, from steel plate pretreatment, cutting and unloading, to slipway (dock) loading and closing, to dock commissioning, trial voyage completion and ship delivery, which can be fully identified only after a comprehensive understanding of all construction processes and operation methods. The early identification is basically prediction, which is incomplete and impractical. However, the control measures and schemes for major matters can be determined. During the construction process, comprehensive and fine identification and appropriate control measures and schemes can be adopted. Therefore, the identification of hidden dangers is continuous

according to the analysis of risk analysis method, the hidden dangers in the high-altitude operation of ship manufacturing mainly include the following four aspects:

1) from the place of occurrence, they are mainly: the edge zone, such as the side of the ship, the transverse bulkhead; Openings, such as staircases and process holes; Operation platform, such as outer plate chain frame and hatch enclosure support; Vertical transportation equipment, such as high-altitude hanging basket and closure hanging cage; Scaffold, such as external scaffold, installation frame, etc

24. Accessories of the experimental machine) from the perspective of human behavior: the personnel working at heights do not wear (or do not wear) safety belts; Use nonstandard operation platform; Use unreliable footholds; Take risks or fail to recognize the existence of danger; Unhealthy physical or mental condition; Do not understand the hazards of the operation point, etc

3) the causes of the accident are: no or incorrect use of personal protective equipment; Unstable tools and equipment; Falling after being impacted by external force; Unstable foothold, etc

4) from the aspect of management, it is: failing to provide qualified personal protective equipment for operators in time; The supervision and management are not in place or the hazard sources are ignored; Education and training (including safety disclosure) are not implemented, not in-depth, or the education effect is poor; Site hazards are not clearly indicated

according to the analysis of fault tree analysis method, the main reasons for accidents in high-altitude operation are: there is no protection in the construction at the edge of the hole or the protective facilities are not tight and firm; Erecting scaffolds or operating platforms in violation of regulations; The fasteners of scaffold or operation platform are not fastened firmly; The safety belt is not used in strict accordance with the regulations, and there are no emergency measures; The operator operates in violation of the regulations; Operators operate against rules and have weak safety awareness; Inadequate protective measures

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